Tag: Sophie Couchman

2018 Chinese Australian Hometown Heritage Tour

In January 2018, Sophie Couchman and I hosted our second Chinese Australian Hometown Heritage Tour to Hong Kong and Guangdong. The tour ran for eleven days, from 14 to 24 January 2018, and visited Hong Kong, Jiangmen, Kaiping, Taishan, Xinhui, Zhongshan and Zhuhai.

We were joined on the tour by seventeen guests, from New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland and the UK – most of whom were descended from early Cantonese migrants to Australia. One of our guests was on the tour for a second time.

Our local tour guide was Stony Xiao from China Adventure Tours, with arrangements and bookings coordinated by Active Travel in Canberra.

For the Chinese characters and Cantonese pronunciation of the names of places we visited on the tour, see this glossary of place names in Chinese (pdf, 1.6MB).

You can find out more and join our mailing list if you’re interested in joining us on a future tour.

The 2018 Chinese Australian Hometown Heritage Tour, with Selia Tan, outside the ancestral halls in Cangdong village, Kaiping

Day 1: Hong Kong 香港

Sunday, 14 January 2018

Accommodation: Charterhouse Hotel, Causeway Bay

Itinerary: arrive in Hong Kong


Day 2: Hong Kong 香港

Monday, 15 January 2018

Accommodation: Charterhouse Hotel, Causeway Bay

Itinerary: morning visit to King Yin Lei mansion and walking tour of Hong Kong Cemetery led by Sophie Couchman; yum cha lunch in Causeway Bay; free afternoon and evening

King Yin Lei, Stubbs Road, Mid-Levels: We started the tour by visiting this magnificent mansion, built by Ballarat herbalist Frank Shum Goon and his wife in 1936. It narrowly escaped demolition in 2007 but was thankfully saved by Hong Kong’s heritage-minded citizens. It is rarely open to the public but we were treated to perfect weather and a magnificent view from the street.
Hong Kong Cemetery, Happy Valley: Sophie led us on a Chinese Australian walking tour of the cemetery – we started at the top and wove our way down to the main gates opposite the Happy Valley racecourse. Among more than 12,000 graves in this beautiful ‘garden cemetery’ are a significant number of Chinese Australians who built lives in Hong Kong after leaving Australia.
Hong Kong Cemetery, Happy Valley: Pauline Rule shared her knowledge about Australian Jane Benson, the wife of Chun Yut, who is buried in the cemetery. One of the exciting aspects of the tour is the knowledge our tour members share with us and each other.

Day 3: Hong Kong 香港 – Jiangmen 江門

Tuesday, 16 January 2018

Accommodation: Yucca Hotel, Jiangmen

Itinerary: morning transfer by ferry and bus to Jiangmen; lunch at Yucca Hotel; afternoon visit to Wuyi Overseas Chinese Museum; dinner at Wuyi Kitchen, Jiangmen

On the bus from Zhongshan to Jiangmen: Some on the tour were old China hands and others were setting foot on the mainland for the first time. People-watching out the bus window, and lively conversation inside it, quickly became part of the tour.
Wuyi Overseas Chinese Museum, Jiangmen: At the entrance of this terrific bilingual museum, where we got an overview of the breadth and significance of overseas Chinese migration from the Sze Yap region.
Wuyi Kitchen, Jiangmen: A taste of what was to come – food and architecture are a big part of the Hometown Heritage Tour!

Day 4: Jiangmen 江門 – Kaiping 開平

Wednesday, 17 January 2018

Accommodation: Pan Tower International Hotel, Kaiping

Itinerary: morning and lunch at the Cangdong Heritage Education Centre, Tangkou, Kaiping, with Dr Selia Tan; afternoon visit to Zili village, Tangkou; dinner at Jiaxiang Seafood Restaurant, Kaiping

Cangdong village, Tangkou, Kaiping: We took advantage of the beautiful weather to explore the village environs with Dr Selia Tan. Selia told us about the uses of local plants, the feng shui of the village and the various shrines placed on the village boundaries.
Cangdong village, Tangkou, Kaiping: It didn’t take long for these local dishes, prepared by the Cangdong village women, to be wolfed down! Kate was particularly happy to be fed such a delicious and diverse range of vegetarian dishes.
Zili village, Tangkou, Kaiping: Taking in the view from the top one of the UNESCO World Heritage-listed mansions in Zili. Built by overseas Chinese in the early 20th century, these mansions and diaolou (defensive towers) blend Chinese and Western architectural styles and building methods.

Day 5: Kaiping 開平

Thursday, 18 January 2018

Accommodation: Pan Tower International Hotel, Kaiping

Itinerary: morning visit and cultural activities in Cangdong village; lunch at Deji Restaurant, Tangkou; afternoon cultural activities and Cantonese opera performance in Cangdong village; own choice for dinner, Kaiping

Cangdong village, Tangkou, Kaiping: We were fortunate to spend two busy days full of food, talks, craft and music at beautiful Cangdong village. Cangdong is the ancestral home of Sydney-born Chinese Australian revolutionary Tse Tsan-tai.
Cangdong village, Tangkou, Kaiping: One of our favourite tour activities is making, and blowing, clay chicken whistles. The art of making this once-popular childhood toy was on the brink of disappearing, but has been revived thanks to the Cangdong project.
Cangdong village, Tangkou, Kaiping: We finished our second day in Cangdong with a Cantonese opera performance under the banyan tree – and Sophie made a new friend!

Day 6: Kaiping 開平 – Taishan 台山

Friday, 19 January 2018

Accommodation: Taishan Gaoye Hotel, Taicheng

Itinerary: accompanied by Dr Selia Tan, morning visit to Fengcai Tang, Dihai, then Majianglong village and Baihe Pier, Baihe; lunch in a local restaurant, Baihe; afternoon tea in Yueshan market, Kaiping, then visit to Qiaotou and Zhaolongli villages, Yueshan; dinner at Qianmanyuan restaurant, Taicheng, Taishan

Fengcai Tang, Dihai, Kaiping: A special treat for our tour was having Selia Tan talk with us about the heritage significance of this magnificent ancestral hall, built by the Yee clan, now on the grounds of a high school. Many Yees from Dihai made their homes in Australia and New Zealand.
Majianglong village, Baihe, Kaiping: UNESCO World Heritage-listed Majianglong village is surrounded bamboo – dense, protective, and beautiful – offering us very different views from those in Zili village. Among the bamboo we even discovered a school with Australian links!
Yueshan town, Kaiping: We might have already eaten a fullsome lunch but that didn’t stop us all enjoying these freshly baked goodies, on sale every afternoon from three o’clock in Yueshan. As well as the ever-popular egg tart, we found pineapple buns made with chunks of real pineapple!

Day 7: Taishan 台山

Saturday, 20 January 2018

Accommodation: Taishan Gaoye Hotel, Taicheng

Itinerary: morning visit to Longtengli in Shandi village and Meijia Dayuan, then to Haikou Pier and Silver Letter Museum, Haikou; lunch in Doushan; afternoon self-guided walking tour of ‘Old Toising’ and own choice for dinner, Taicheng

Meijia Dayuan, Dingjiang, Duanfen, Taishan: We visited the stunning Mei family market square on a Saturday and it was busy and bustling. Like at Yueshan there were plenty of local goodies for sale, except here it’s now on offer for tourists and day-trippers.
Haikou Pier and Silver Letter Museum, Haikou, Taishan: We like to do a bit of exploring on our tours, and this museum had only just opened. There’s lots of great historical material on display, but no English, so Stony provided us with an excellent overview and translated text panels on the run.
Wet market, Nanchang Street, Taicheng: On the tour we have plenty of opportunities to experience everyday life in southern China, such as the shops and markets in the backstreets of Taicheng, the capital of Taishan county.

Day 8: Taishan 台山 – Xinhui 新會 – Zhongshan 中山

Sunday, 21 January 2018

Accommodation: Sheraton Hotel, Zhongshan

Itinerary: yum cha breakfast at Gaoye Hotel, Taicheng; morning visit to Shiquli village, Luokeng, Xinhui; lunch at Yufuzi restaurant on the river at Luokeng; afternoon visit to Xinhui Confucius Temple and Jinniushan Overseas Chinese Cemetery, Xinhui; dinner at Shiqi Lao restaurant, Zhongshan

Shiquli village, Luokeng, Xinhui: One of the special things for Kate on the tour is bringing the group to Shiquli, a village whose Australian connections she has been researching for almost a decade. Since we were there on a Sunday, the village kids weren’t at school and they followed us as we were shown around the village by former village head, Chen Ruihuai, aka ‘Grandpa’ Chan.
Luokeng, Xinhui: We ate lunch overlooking a branch of the Tan River at Luokeng – while not as vital as in the nineteenth century, river culture is still an important part of life in the region.
Shiqi Lao restaurant, Zhongshan: Food as performance art!

Day 9: Zhongshan 中山

Monday, 22 January 2018

Accommodation: Sheraton Hotel, Zhongshan

Itinerary: morning visit to Zhuxiuyuan and Shachong villages, Zhongshan South District; own choice for lunch and afternoon self-guided walking tour of ‘Old Shekki’ along Sun Wen Road, Shiqi, Zhongshan; dinner at Xi Jia restaurant, Sanxi village, Zhongshan East District

Zhuxiuyuan, South District, Zhongshan: The Kwok brothers from Zhuxiuyuan founded the famous Wing On department stores in Hong Kong and Shanghai after business success in Sydney. We saw an expression of their wealth in this house built in their home village, now a suburb of Zhongshan city.
Shiqi, Zhongshan: There are lots of hidden sights down the laneways off Sun Wen Road in Shekki, the old part of Zhongshan city – these women do facial hair removal by ‘threading’.
Sanxi village, East District, Zhongshan: Enjoying a drink at the microbrewery before dinner.

Day 10: Zhongshan 中山 – Zhuhai 珠海

Tuesday, 23 January 2018

Accommodation: Aqueen Hotel, Zhuhai

Itinerary: morning visit to Xiangshan Commercial Culture Museum, Shiqi, then to Museum of the Former Residence of Sun Yat-sen and Zhongshan Folklore Culture Museum, Cuiheng, Zhongshan; lunch at Hi Centre and Zhuhai Opera House, Xiangzhou, Zhuhai; afternoon visit to Meixi Royal Stone Archways, Meixi village, Xiangzhou; dinner at Deyue Fang restaurant, Yeli Island, Xiangzhou

Xiangshan Commerical Culture Museum, Shiqi, Zhongshan: The top floor of this museum tells the story of the four major Shanghai department stores, established by Zhongshan-born Chinese who learnt their skills and raised their capital in Australia – the Mas, Kwoks, Choys and lastly the Lees and Lius.
Museum of the Former Residence of Sun Yat-sen, Cuiheng, Zhongshan: As well as stories about Sun Yat-sen’s childhood in Cuiheng and his later career, this museum contains displays about Zhongshan domestic life and culture.
Meixi Paifang, Meixi village, Xiangzhou, Zhuhai: These ‘paifang’ or archways were presented by the Qing government to Chun Afong, the first Chinese consul in Hawaii, for his benevolence and good works in his hometown. The nearby museum highlights the interesting lives of Chun Afong and his mixed-race Chinese-Hawaiian family.

Day 11: Zhuhai 珠海 – Hong Kong 香港

Wednesday, 24 January 2018

Itinerary: morning walking tour of old Xiangzhou fishing port led by Kate Bagnall and visit to Transient Fishing Culture Exhibition Hall, Xiangzhou, Zhuhai; ferry transfer to Hong Kong

Hong Kong-Macau Transient Fishing Culture Exhibition Hall, Xiangzhou, Zhuhai: We visited this former dragon boat pavilion as part of Kate’s Zhuhai walking tour – as a museum it now tells the history of Old Xiangzhou and the Tanka fishing communities of Zhuhai, Macau and Hong Kong.
Xiangzhou, Zhuhai: We were treated to an aerial display over the Zhuhai Opera House and Xiangzhou fishing port – the port will soon be relocated to make way for a luxury marina.
Jiuzhou Port, Zhuhai: Heading back to Hong Kong by high-speed ferry.

Finally, a big thanks to our 2018 tourers – Megan, Kerry, Pauline, Leanne, Natalie, Susan, Richard, Ann, Sally-Anne, Yvonne, Lyn, Kevin, Sarah, Robbie, Janice, Alice, Dalys – for the things each one of you brought to the tour. It’s a joy and a privilege to be able to share these experiences with you!

Tung Wah Newspaper Index

Over a decade ago one of the most useful tools for Chinese Australian history research was developed as part of the Chinese Heritage of Australian Federation project – an English-language index to two of Australia’s early Chinese-language newspapers, the Tung Wah Times and the Tung Wah News. For someone like me, whose Chinese reading comprehension skills were rudimentary at best, the index meant there was some practical way to find relevant material in the newspapers. Articles I located, for example, provided evidence of Chinese Australian attitudes towards intermarriage between Chinese men and non-Chinese women, something that was difficult to ascertain from other sources.

My best find was an article that related to a story I was told during fieldwork in Taishan in 2003. The story told of how foreign wives of Chinese men would give their husbands doses of poison before they made a return visit to China, a poison that could be reversed only if the man returned overseas to his foreign wife within a particular time for the antidote. My informant stated that this was the cause of the death of his uncle, who had been a laundryman in Cuba in the 1920s and was known to have had a Cuban wife. The article in the Tung Wah News provided a second example of this same story, suggesting that it was an urban myth of sorts among the qiaoxiang villages.

Unfortunately, with time the Chinese Heritage of Australian Federation website, and the Tung Wah index with it, could no longer be maintained and it was archived by La Trobe University. The index lost functionality in this process, meaning that searches no longer worked and only a certain number of items in the index were browsable.

Which brings me to the point of this post.

Thanks to the hard work of Sophie Couchman and Tim Sherratt, the Tung Wah Newspaper Index has been redeveloped and a sparkly new version is now up and running. The index can be searched or browsed, as you’d expect. But Tim has also made sure the index includes Linked Open Data and a basic API and has made the code and data available on Github.

Happy hunting, everyone!

Representing lives from the archive of White Australia

Sophie Couchman, Tim Sherratt and I are presenting a session on ‘Representing lives from the archive of White Australia’ at Framing Lives: 8th Biennial Conference of the International Auto/Biography Association on 19 July 2012.

Panel description

This panel offers three approaches to representing the lives of the thousands of men, women and children who were affected by the racially-based immigration policies of late 19th and early 20th-century Australia. To administer the Immigration Restriction Act and its colonial predecessors, government officials implemented an increasingly complex and structured system of tracking and documenting the movements of non-white people as they travelled in and out of the country. This surveillance left an extraordinary body of records containing information about people who, according to the national myth of a ‘White Australia’, were not Australian at all.

The first paper will examine a unique set of almost 300 identification photographs of Chinese Australians taken in Victoria in the late 1890s, considering what these photographs reveal of the lives of their subjects. The second paper will demonstrate how, through a close reading of the records, fragments of biographical information can be built into a portrait of the life of a Chinese woman living in Australia on exemption from 1910 to 1913. The final paper will consider the possibilities of digital history for reconstructing marginalised lives and reflect on the challenges of representing biographical data from the White Australia records in a form that respects its origins and meanings.

Identifying whom?: reading identification photography by Sophie Couchman

In 1900 William Nean posed proudly on his bicycle in full racing attire for the popular photographic company Yeoman & Co. in Bourke Street, Melbourne. He used this photograph as an identification portrait and it is now preserved in the National Archives of Australia amongst 268 other photographic portraits of Chinese resident in Victoria that were created under the administration of the 1890 Chinese Act between 1899 and 1901. The Act aimed to limit and control Chinese immigration in the colony of Victoria and, from the late 1890s, identification portraits of long-term Chinese residents were used as part of documentation to allow them to re-enter Victoria free from the restrictions of the Act.

William Nean’s portrait immediately raises the questions of who he was and why such an unusual photograph was used as an identification portrait. The rest of the paperwork associated with this series of photographs no longer survives—all that remains are annotated identification portraits. This paper will place these photographs in the history of identification photography and, through close readings of them, tease out what can be learnt about the lives of the men, women and children represented in them.

Shifting the lens: uncovering the story of Mrs Poon Gooey by Kate Bagnall

This paper revisits the Poon Gooey deportation case, marking two significant anniversaries. In 1913, it will be a hundred years since Ham Hop, the wife of fruit merchant Poon Gooey, was deported from Australia with their two young daughters. After Ham Hop’s arrival in Australia on a temporary permit in 1910, Poon Gooey—a fluent English-speaker, Christian and member of the Chinese Empire Reform League—mounted a determined campaign to gain permission for her to remain more permanently. The campaign, while ultimately unsuccessful, found widespread support and was an ongoing embarrassment to the federal Labor government.

Fifty years later, historian AT Yarwood wrote on the Poon Gooey case as an example of early problems in the administration of the White Australia Policy. Yarwood based his study on the very substantial Department of External Affairs file, which documents the Poon Gooey story from 1910 to 1913. Greater access to records in the intervening decades, however, means that is now possible to uncover more of the context of Poon Gooey’s actions at this time and, more generally, of the two decades he spent in Australia—evidence that calls into question some of Yarwood’s conclusions about Poon Gooey’s actions and his motivations.

This paper shifts the lens even further, however, to focus on the life of Ham Hop, rather than on that of her husband. Although significant moments in her life—her marriage, periods of physical separation from her husband, travel to Australia, pregnancies, births of her children, medical problems, and finally the deportation of herself and her children—are recorded in the official case files, Ham Hop herself remains silent. Through a close reading of these records and the extensive press coverage of the case, this paper seeks to reveal what can be known of her story and to suggest possibilities for uncovering the lives of women and children who were marginalised and excluded by the White Australia Policy in the early years of the 20th century.

The responsibilities of data: reconstructing lives from the records of the White Australia Policy by Tim Sherratt

The sheer volume of records created by the White Australia Policy is overwhelming. Amidst this vast and disturbing legacy are thousands upon thousands of certificates documenting the movements of non-white residents. These biographical fragments, often including photographs and handprints, are visually and emotionally compelling. We cannot avoid the gaze of those whose lives were monitored, we cannot deny the people behind the policy.

But these records are also a source of data. Increasing numbers of these records have been digitised. As we develop the tools and techniques of digital history, we open up the possibility of extracting this data from the digitised records, of aggregating the biographical fragments, of tracing lives and mapping families. We can tame the overwhelming abundance of records and create a rich, new resource for exploration and analysis.

But how do we avoid imprisoning these newly-liberated lives in yet another system? How do we ensure that the challenging gaze of individuals is not lost in the transformation to data? This paper will look at some of the possibilities for extracting information from these records and reflect on the challenges of representing that data in a form that respects its origins and meanings.